Friday, September 20, 2019

Significant Changes of Toyota

Significant Changes of Toyota Our choice to pick Toyota was due to the significant changes it has gone through over the years. When Toyota first came into the market; nobody was willing to buy this Japanese car that they knew nothing about. But as time has gone by they have proved themselves to be one of the most reliable cars that can be found in todays market. A radio producer in Kenya once said every car in front of you and behind you is a Toyota (Juma, 2002) and indeed it is true. Toyotas decision to make this hybrid car was driven by both internal and external forces. It has been noted that the hybrid Camry will be the first commercially available hybrid vehicle built in Australia. The decision was announced in June 2008 to begin manufacturing a hybrid version of the Camry Sedan at the Altona plan in Melbourne from the beginning of 2010 (www.toyota.com.au). Looking at the internal forces first Toyota is committed to developing hybrid systems as a core technology. Globally, the goal is to reach one million hybrid sales per year during the 2010s. Toyotas worldwide goal is to approach zero impact on the environment in all our activities, including vehicles and production. While we may never be able to achieve zero impact, we always strive to do better and hybrid technology is an important part of that effort (www.toyota.com.au). There is constant need to improve their cars-not that they need that much improvement but in the sense of safety and efficiency for it s customers. External forces are the need to stay on top of the competitive market. All automobile companies are constantly making a new car or adding features to a new car. For Toyota to maintain its name and customers and attract new customers the hybrid was the best way to go about this. 2. DRIVING FORCES The forces which has no or minimal control by the Toyota Production System (TPS) are termed as External factors. These can be further classified into three categories. 1.Technological developments 2.Competitive environment 3.Social and Political pressure 2.2 Economic With the current global financial crisis hitting virtually the entire world, and as mentioned above the fluctuating fuel prices, there is bound to be a change in the consumer spending and price of most commodities will definitely be affected. It is in this aspect therefore those organizations will have to change so has adapted to the dynamism of the ever rapid globe and become relevant to the consumer in both product and services that they do offer in the market. 2.3 Social The current social trend is go-green which basically means being environmental cautious more of the eco-solution lean towards the conservation the earth- less pollution. The trend particularly in the automobile world is the one moving from fuel guzzlers cars to eco-friendly cars more of hybrid cars which the Toyota organization has done well to rebrand themselves as the automobile industry of the future. 2.4 Technological Environmental factors have driven TPS (Toyota Production System) to excel in their Technological developments. As a result TPS introduced hybrid vehicles, which are more fuel efficient and eco friendly. This external factor has transformed TPS from an ordinary passenger car manufacturing company to a Technology innovative company. With the new innovation particularly in the fuel conservation, Toyota Australia leads in the domestic market through its variable value timing intelligent technology (www.toyota.com.au , 2009). The VVTI technology makes it stand out from the other car manufactures. The organization is also distinctive in its development management styles such as the just-in-time and Toyota production system (www.toyota.com.au , 2009) which are incorporated by the Toyota Australia. 2.5 Competition Competitors in the automobile industry have been a key player for TPS development. In order to sustain in the market TPS reengineered some technological advancements and gadgets from their competitors such as Cruise control, Auto gearing in their products. (Driel, Dolfsma, 2009) Competitors in the automobile industry have been a key player for TPS development. The automobile industry has the most furious competition in the world, with the greatest Toyota competitors being, Honda which is from Japan. Toyota however stands alone due to its capability to change its technology and conform to its changed environment, particularly the fuel efficiency aspect 3. CHANGE PROCESS MODELS Following the strong desire that both the Federal and Victorian governments had for new environmental friendly technologies; Toyota decide to come up with an eco-friendly car, the hybrid. In addition to that; the growing demand for our Prius hybrid also confirmed that there is a need for more hybrid models in our line up (www.toyota.com.au). As purported by the equilibrium theory of change (Abernathy Utterback, 1978; Imai, 1986; Tushman Romanelli, 1985) comes the crucial fundamental understanding that change occurs in a series of radical and incremental changes (Abernathy Utterback, 1978; Imai, 1986; Tushman Romanelli, 1985). With emphasizes from (Kofoed, et al.2002) stating in other words that the above theory claims that an organisation-just like an organism- is pressured by periodic environmental events to change dramatically or else perish. So strong is this notion that it is further illustrated without any reasonable doubt by the Toyota organisation worldwide and to be specific Toyota Australia too. The Toyota Australia has conceptualized the essence of the equilibrium theory of change (Abernathy Utterback, 1978; Imai, 1986; Tushman Romanelli, 1985) more so by embarking on radical changes that are all geared towards the improvement of structural process and systems within the organisation. The Toyota Australia uses both the continuous improvement process and re-engineering process. 3.1 Continuous improvement process The essences of Toyota Australia continuous improvement process is its quality management programmes and to be emphatic Toyota production system (www.toyota.com.au). The organisation through the Toyota production system (www.toyota.com.au) are enabled to provide its customs with the highest quality cars and at the same time services. At the heart of this system is the Kaizen (www.toyota.com.au) which is the absolute elimination of waste and helps workers to be more efficient (www.toyota.com.au). 3.2 Re-engineering process As mentioned before, Toyota Australia makes use of this process because it has identified its distinctive competences that differentiate itself from other auto-motive industries are the fuel efficient cars that they produce. The organisation emphasises is on high-quality performing fuel efficient engine cars, at lowest possible cost, in a timely manner with the shortest possible lead times and its Just-in-time management schemes, (www.toyota.com.au). The car prices are relatively cheaper in comparison to other brand of cars from different industries. The core process without any doubt is the ability to come with a hybrid car of the future, since customers are keener about other alternatives of fuel consumption. The ability of such innovation adds value to customers thus the perception that, Toyota Australia is a series of processes from strategic planning to after-sales, (Robbins Judge, 2007). 3.3 Lewins three step model Lewins three step model of unfreezing, movement and refreezing can be noted in the change cycle used by Toyota. Unfreezing is the process of overcoming pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity (Robbins, 2007, p651). This is the status quo that all automobile companies share. Then comes the movement stage that transforms the organisation from the status quo. Toyotas movement stage was to develop the hybrid that has both petrol engine and an electric motor which recharges itself as the car is driven. The refreezing stage involves stabilizing the change model. This is quite evident in Toyota as seen in the success of the Prius. Sorensen adds on by telling us that companies with strong cultures excel at incremental change (2002). The Prius has been recognised globally as a clean vehicle achieving many awards and certification to the toughest environmental standards in the world. Many other engine technologies are yet to achieve emissions low enough to satisfy these emerging low emission standards (www.toyota.com.au). This is bound to bring about a competitive advantage over its rivals. Imitation of this may be quite costly and take Developing such a change has involved a lot of processes, knowledge and most importantly costs. Toyota is still very committed to its customers and maintains that trust by developing this new car that not more efficient but also environmental friendly for our future. To show its loyalty customers are guaranteed to an after sales service for three years or up to 600,000kms. As we have been told by Toyota; We are committed to sound environmental management for a sustainable future which in turn improves our business performance. Toyota Australias environmental performance, initiatives and technologies are further explained throughout this site (www.toyota.com.au). 3.4 Organisational development model Toyota Australia is an organisation whereby people are given respect and this aspect of the organisation is enshrined as part of its core value thus making it different, more of a standalone auto-motive industry. The other aspects of this change model that are used by Toyota Australia are trust and openness. These two characteristics are nurtured through having authenticity, openness and a supportive climate (Robbins Judge, 2007) in the organisation. Team building is also another characteristic that is embedded in the Toyota Australia organisation and in the processes helps in managing change. Last but not the least is the characteristic of confronting problems with again Toyota organisation having a notion of not ignoring or shrugging of problems. On the contrary these problems are dealt with amicably with innovation for a better organisation presently and in the future always in mind. 4. CONCLUSION If an organisation needs to survive, it must respond to changes in its environment. When competitors introduce new products or services, government agencies enact new laws, important sources of supply go out of business, or similar environmental changes take place, the organisation needs to adapt (Robbins, 2007). Toyota has realized that early enough and brought out a car that will be very helpful in the future as it is now. This success and competitive edge has kept Toyota in the worlds top ranking. REFRENCES Abernathy, W.J, Utterback, J.M (1978), Patterns of industrial innovation, Technology Review, Vol.80, pp 40-7. Busk Kofoed, L (2000), Experimentarium as arena for common learning during change processes, Processes in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Driel V Hugo, Dolfsma Wilfred (2009), Path dependence, initial conditions, and routines in organizations, The Toyota production system re-examined, Journal or Organizational change Management, Vol. 22 No.1, 2009, pp. 49-72. Imai, M, (1986), Kaizen, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Robbins, S. P and Judge, T. A, (2007), Organisational Behaviour, 12th Edition, Prentice Hall, upper Saddle River, NJ. Sorensen, J. B, (2002), The strength of Corporate Culture and the Reliability of Firm Performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, pp 70-91. Tushman, M.L, Romanelli, E (1985), Organisational evolution: a metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation, Research in Organisation Behavior, pp 171-222 Anonymous (2000), CI Changes: From Suggestion Box to Organisational Learning Continuous Improvement in Europe and Australia, Toyota: www.toyota.com.au (Accessed on 19/08/2009) CIA factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html (Accessed on 24/08/2009) Juma, Emmanuel, Radio Kiss fm, Nairobi 6th June, 2002. 10.30am.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Cola Wars: Pepsi vs Coke Essay -- Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola

The Cola Wars: Pepsi vs Coke   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  PepsiCo. Incorporated and The Coca-Cola Company are the two largest and oldest archrivals in the carbonated soft drink (CSD) industry. Coca-Cola was invented and first marketed in 1886, followed by Pepsi Cola in 1898. Coca-Cola was named after the coca leaves and kola nuts John Pemberton used to make it, and Pepsi Cola after the beneficial effects its creator, Caleb Bradham, claimed it had on dyspepsia. The rivalry between the soda giants, also known as the "Cola Wars", began in the 1960’s when Coca-Cola's dominance was being increasingly challenged by Pepsi Cola. The competitive environment between the rivals was intense and well-publicized, forcing both companies to continuously establish and implement strategic variations as a means to create a competitive advantage. The competition fostered and stimulated continuing growth in an industry which many predicted in the early 1970’s to be on the verge of maturity. Reasons for the prediction arose from the fact that further growth of per capita consumption of soft drinks is fairly static regarding how much people are able to consume on a daily basis. Furthermore, both Pepsi Cola and Coca-Cola offered a limited number of products that "looked the same, tasted the same, and bubble into foam the same", thus questioning whether further substantial growth in sales was possible.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Pepsi Cola and Coca-Cola’s marketing strategies have been as indistinguishable as the products themselves. Relying on colorful images, lively words, beautiful people, interesting bottle designs, and contagious jingles, Pepsi and Coke propelled their respective products into the American and international mainstream. The changing faces of Pepsi and Coke’s management, however, facilitated the brand image according to their own style and what they saw as an advantageous competitive approach. This style and approach is what makes Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola distinguishable. The objective of Coca-Cola’s advertisements was to strategically position their product in people’s mind in order to maximize its acceptance. This strategy would in some way or another have a correlation to the changing social values of the period. â€Å"Trying to keep step with each generation and era has been an important factor in advertising for Coke. It strives not to be too far behind or too far ahead of its time; the product has ... ... strategies in order to increase their sales growth. The rivalry between the two soda giants required new strategies to be continuously implemented. The new strategies devised by Pepsi and Coke to deal with the changing environment could not have been effectively implemented without changing their distribution system from networks of independent bottlers to company-owned bottling systems. This transformation has been essential to both companies' introduction of new products and new forms of pricing, promotion, and advertising. The U.S. Department of Justice has brought many price-fixing cases against CSD bottlers, the vast majority of which led to guilty pleas. The FTC has conducted many investigations in the CSD industry, including investigations of horizontal and vertical acquisitions in the industry. Sources Cited 1. Enrico, Roger & Kornbluth, Jesse: (1986).The Other Guy Blinked. New York: The Free Press. 2. "Coke v Pepsi", The Economist, January 29, 1994, pp. 67-68. 3. http://www.pepsi.com 4. http://www.coca-cola/home1.com 5. PepsiCo. Inc. Annual Report Issued to Common Stock Shareholders 6. The Coca-Cola Company Annual Report Issued to Common Stock Shareholders

Electoral College :: essays research papers

The framer's intent of setting up the American Government will never be know for sure, but it is gathered that they preferred a republic over a democracy. In the constitutional convention the drafters had to decide how much power they would entrust with the people of the United States, and how much should be controlled by representatives. They chose to have Congress Make the laws, and congress would be selected directly by the people. But another branch of government, the executive branch, needed a sole president and the framers had to decide how to choose this president. They chose from three main systems: elect the president by congress, the people, or electors. The electoral college system has been in place for over 200 years and Americans are still not sure how it works or if it is the best system. Many Americans feel they go to the polls every year and vote for the president, and in the long run they are in control of the fate of our executive branch. This third system was to have electors that could not be a member of congress vote for the president. The elector system was voted down twice, once as the electors to be chosen by state legislatures, and the other time as the electors to be chosen by direct vote. Finally it was passed under the system of letting state legislature decide how to choose the electors. Another compromise had to be made about how many electors each state would have. This was agreed upon by the electors equaling the total of the states representatives and senators. States went three main routes in choosing electors: the legislative system, where state legislatures choose the electors; a district system, where electors are selected by the people of each congressional district; and the general ticket, or a winner-take-all system, where a popular vote was held in the entire state, and the winner took all electoral votes. Many have tried to reform by making a more uniform system state by state, but the constitution is very clear that it is each state's own decision of how to choose electors. The legislative system eventually failed because of too much bargaining, promises, and payoffs. The district system eventually lost popularity because it encourages third parties. This left the general ticket system as the dominating system. However, the framers originally intended electors to be chosen by the people and then vote for what they thought was best. There are two states that still use the district system, but the remaining 48 states use the general ticket system. Most all states no longer show the electors' names on the ballot.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Free Essay: Metaphors in Sonnet 73 :: Sonnet essays

Metaphors in Sonnet 73 Â  "Sonnet 73" by William Shakespeare contains many metaphors to form a descriptive image. Shakespeare used conceits, which are "fanciful extended metaphors" (567), used in love poems of earlier centuries. Shakespeare used these beautifully in "Sonnet 73." A metaphor is a "brief, compressed comparison that talks about one thing as if it were another" (554). Shakespeare expresses three major metaphors in this sonnet. The first is about age, the second about death, and of course, love follows. These three metaphors create an enjoyable poem. The first metahphor that Shakespeare uses is that of a tree in the fall. He compares himself to the tree by saying 'That time of year thou mayst in me behold when yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang upon those boughs which shake against the cold". Shakespeare compares his aging self to the aging tree. Just as the tree is losing its' leaves, Shakespeare could be losing his hair. Just as the tree is getting brittle, Shakespears bones are getting old and feeble. Most importantly, Shakespeare doesn't say that he is actually going through this downfall, but that his lover percieves it in him. Another metaphor in this sonnet is the comparison of death to nightfall, "In me thou seest the twilight of such day" (568). He continues, "Which by and by black night doth take away, death's second self, that seals up all rest" (568). Shakespeare perfectly describes death as the fading of a bright day to a dark black night. The third, and final, metaphor is when Shakespeare is comparing himself to the fire. Shakespeare beautifully states, "In me thou seest the glowing of such fire that on the ashes of his youth lie, as the deathbed whereon it must expire, consumed with that which it was nourished by" (568). . As the fire is dying so is Shakespeare. Â  In conclusion, Shakespeare combines these three ideas in a two line follow-up, "This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong, to love that well which thou must leave ere long" (568). In this he relates all three objects, aging, death, and love, to each other. He is saying that one must enjoy love when he has it because it soon grows old and must die. He is also making the point that his lover is a good person for staying with him in his old age.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Uranium Mining in Australia

In the last forty years, Uranium has become one of the worlds most important energy minerals. Primarily, Uranium produced in Australia has used for the sole production of electricity. However a small proportion of the Uranium mined is for important medical isotopes. It is for this reason that Uranium mining is an ever-important and pressing point of discussion. Mining itself has been criticized for the massive effect it on the environment around it. Uranium mining is no different, and more often then not, the after effects of Uranium mining are more detrimental to the environment. Unlike other mining, Uranium mining has also caused a major stir in the actual use of the Uranium after it has been mined. The environmental problems of Uranium mining go further then the actual mining and by products. The uses of Uranium have been seen as risky and dangerous. Using Uranium as a source of energy has already shown the disastrous effects. The melt down at Chernobyl is still causing health problems in citizens after 30 years. On the upside, Uranium mining creates employment and boosts the Australian Economy. It is for these reasons that Uranium Mining is a process that needs to be looked at carefully before any judgements are made on it's future in Australia. Chemistry Of Uranium and Uranium Mining In the Earth's crust, mineral Uranium averages about two parts per million. Traces of Uranium occur just about everywhere on earth. In Australia, the existence of uranium has been noted since the 1890's. In 1930, ores were mined at Radium Hill in South Australia for minute deposits of Radium. The Radium was used for medical purposes. As a result of the Radium mining, a couple of hundred kilograms of uranium was obtained and used exclusively to produce colours in glass and ceramics. In 1954 the Government started up a major uranium producer in Run Jungle, known as Rum Jungle Mine. Because of this Australia began to emerge as a potential source of uranium for the world's nuclear electricity production. 1970's large amounts of Uranium deposits were found dotted around Australia. This signaled the start of mines in the Northern Territory such as Ranger and Jabiluka, and also in South Australia with Olympic Dam. Uranium is found rocks of the earth's crust, at 4 parts per million. The extraction (removal) or mining process varies from where the uranium ore deposits are found. Surface cut techniques are used where the uranium ore if found close to the surface. Surface cut mines involved the uranium being found close to the surface, so the uranium is removed from a shallow pit. Fig 1. 0 Ranger Mine found in the Northern Territory. The uranium ore is removed via the open cut mining method. Underground mining is used when the ore is found deep underground. In this process, the ore is removed in a similar fashion to copper; the mine is built in the ground. Olympic Damn Mine in South Australia, relies on the underground mining process. Another way to remove ore is called In-Situ Leaching. It is a popular way to mine Uranium, as it doesn't affect the landscape as much as open cut or underground mining. It is used to remove Uranium filled sand that is found in water in a porous rock, which itself confined in a non-porous rock. In situ leaching involves a leaching liquid (ammonium-carbonate or sulfuric acid) pumped through drill- holes into underground uranium deposits, with the uranium bearing liquid is pumped out from below. Ore mined in open pit or underground mines, unlike in situ leaching, has to be crushed and leached in a uranium mill. A Uranium mill is a chemical plant designed to extract uranium from ore. It is usually located near the mines to limit transportation. In the most cases, sulfuric acid is used as the leaching agent, but alkaline leaching can also used. As the leaching agent not only extracts uranium from the ore, but also several other constituents like molybdenum, vanadium, selenium, iron, lead and arsenic, the uranium must be separated out of the leaching solution. The final product produced from the mill, commonly referred to as â€Å"yellow cake† (U3O8 with impurities), is packed and shipped in casks. The reaction between the uranium ore and sulfuric acid. The UO2 is then oxidised. In some cases uranium has been removed from low-grade ore by a process called heap leaching. This may be done if the uranium contents are too low for the ore to be economically processed in a uranium mill. Heaping leaching is performed by using a leaching liquid (often sulfuric acid) being introduced to the top of the pile of ore. The acid or leaching liquid, percolates down until it reaches a liner below the pile or ore, where it is caught and pumped to a processing plant. This liquid contains the uranium. During leaching, the piles of ore present a hazard because of the risk of release of dust, radon gas and leaching liquid. (referenced from Hardy, C J, 1978, The Chemistry of Uranium Milling, Radiochimica Acta 25, 121-134) Nuclear Mining and Milling has a serious social relevance. The tailings from the Uranium mining have serious health risks and environmental hazards. There are many serious environmental arguments over the mining of Uranium. The mining process itself in Australia has strict guidelines, yet the waste products from the mining process still have an extremely detrimental effect on the environment. Uranium mill tailings (or waste products from the crushing and leaching of the ore) are normally dumped as sludge in special ponds or piles (heaps). These piles/ponds are then abandoned. The amount of sludge produced is roughly equal to that of the ore milled. Long-living decay products such as the radioactive elements Thorium-230 and Radium-226 are not removed from the sludge. This means that the sludge contains over half of the initial radioactivity of the ore. As well as this, unfortunately, due to mainly technical limitations not all of the Uranium present in the ore can be removed in the milling process. Therefore, the sludge (which is the waste product) still contains at least 5% of the uranium present in the ore to start off with. The sludge also contains a variety of heavy metals and other contaminants. These include arsenic, as well as the highly corrosive chemical reagents used during the milling process (such as the sulfuric acid used in leaching). The mining and milling process fundamentally removes the hazardous constitutes in the ore from their relatively safe underground location. Mined Uranium itself does not emit hazardous radiation. Radium-226 found in the tailings continuously decays to the radioactive gas Radon-222. Radon-222 has a decay product that has been thought to cause lung cancer. Radon releases are a major hazard that continues even after uranium mines are shut down. The Radon can escape from the interior of the tailing piles or sludge. Since radon spreads quickly with the wind, many people receive small additional radiation doses. However, in Australia the majority of mines are based away from residential or populated areas. It is a concern for workers though, but with safety apparatus, the risk factor is non-existent. Tailing deposits are also subject to many different kinds of erosion. During and after a heavy rainfall, erosion gullies can form where the tailing deposits are left. Floods can destroy the whole deposit, leaving it dispersed everywhere. Interestingly enough, plants and burrowing animals can penetrate into the deposit and disperse the material, which subsequently enhances the radon emanation and make the deposit more susceptible to erosion. When the surface of the pile dries out, the fine sands are blown by the wind over adjacent areas. Erosion leaves the tailing deposits at a risk of dispersion. Seepage from tailing piles is another major hazard. Seepage poses a risk of contamination to ground and surface water. This water can be transferred to fish that swim in the water, then to whoever consumes the fish. Tailings dams are more often then not, not of stable construction. In most cases, they were made from sedimentation of the tailing sludge. Some are even built on geologic faults. This means that they are at greater risk of an earthquake. Strong rain or snowstorms can also cause dam failures. It is of no surprise that time after time dam failures have occurred. It was thought that bringing the tailings back to where the ore was mined would be an acceptable solution for the tailing disposal. Even though most of the Uranium was removed from the material, it did not mean the material was less hazardous. Most of the contaminants are still present. It is because of the processes the materials have to go through to extract the uranium which leaves the material in a condition where the contaminants are much more mobile (sludge and sand), therefore the material susceptible to migration into the environment. In most cases, tailings have to be dumped on the surface for lack of other options. Here, the protection requirements can more easily be controlled by appropriate methods, but additional measures have to be performed to assure protection from erosion. Uranium mining has also caused some concerns because of where the ore deposits are located. Jabiluka mine is in the heart of Kakadu, a National Park, and also in the mines in the Arnhem region. Aboriginal communities are against the mine sites as they are on their cultural land and heritage. It can be argued however, that with strict regulations in the mining and milling of Uranium, the environmental effects and cultural disturbances can be minimal. The mine-tailing dam should for one not be built on a geological fault. This itself is an obvious way of minimizing the risk of contaminants being released. The site should not be located anywhere near or in the flood plain of rivers, and the level of the dam should be deep. If there is any seepage from the tailing dam, it shouldn't pose a risk to the ground water. During investigation of the site, ground water flow has to be monitored, to allow development of computer based three- dimensional ground water models. These models can be used for prediction of effects of supposed or real contaminant releases. This in itself can show the health and risk factor in the mine tailing. With this technology, we can work towards finding out ways in which to minimize the risks involved with the tailings. The deposits of the clay appropriate for lining and covering the deposit should not be located too far away, and the site should be remote from residential areas. It's these basic guidelines, that when followed, make Uranium mining and milling quite safe and not hazardous to the environment or people (taken from OECD NEA 1993, The Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, ch 2) To increase the safety of a tailing deposit area, be it a damn or a pile, certain management are applied to reduce the risk of hazardous contaminants being released into the environment. Dewatering of the sludge, smoothing of the slopes, and installation of erosion protection. On top of the pile, an appropriate cover should be installed for protection against release of gamma radiation and radon gas, beginning of precipitation, intrusion of the plants and animals, and erosion. This cover in most cases consists of several different layers to meet all requirements. Moreover, the catchement collection and treatment of seepage water is necessary to release purified waters to the surface water only. In the long term however, water treatment should no longer be necessary. Uranium mining, despite the outcry against the environmental problems it can cause, is quite a positive and good thing for the Australian society. Through the mining and milling process, jobs are created and new skills gained. Unemployment is a big issue in Australia, and by boosting the employment rate, essentially boosting the economy. Uranium mining also brings Australia money through exports. In 1997-98 Australian Uranium accounted for 15 per cent of world production, worth about $288 million to Australia. (Lambert et al, 1996, Australia's Uranium Resources, BRS (expenditure, early resource) Fig 1. 1 Showing the amount of money Uranium export brings Australia Taken from: ‘Australia's Uranium and who owns It' Briefing Paper (Found at http://www. uic. com. au/nip01. htm) Advancements in mining technology will mean that hazardous contaminants in the Uranium tailings can be removed before the sludge is dumped in dams or piles. By doing so, the sludge piles/dams would be of no hazard to the environment and could be used to fill back up the mining sites. At the moment there are strict laws that govern Australian these laws and mine sites, are in place to minimize the risk of hazardous radiation being released from the waste piles (tailing dams, sludge piles etc). Only the future can tell what Uranium holds for us. Uranium mining at the present moment has a lot of controversy surrounding it, and the effects on the environment and cultural groups. It has to be realised that the laws governing Uranium Mining in Australia are strict and dictate how Uranium mining is undertaken. This means that there is little to no risk of the tailings being deposited on ‘risky' sites, and the risk of hazardous contaminants being released into the environment are small. By being sensitive to the views and culture of the Indigenous people, and involving them in decisions surrounding the mine, it won't be long until mining companies and these people come to an understanding or agreement.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Explain the Potential Effects of Five Different Influences on an Individual

Explain the effects of five different life stages on the development of an individual. In today’s society it is almost impossible to grow up without being affected by the things around us. During an individual’s development there are five main key factors that affect them. These include: * Genetic factors * Socio- economic factors * Biological factors * Lifestyle factors * Environmental factors To begin with, there are 23 chromosomes in each cell found in the nucleus.It is these cells that determine the hereditary of a child as well as the sex during conception. Genetic diseases make up a large proportion of the total disease burden, for example 50% of deafness is due to genetics as well as 40-50% of miscarriages. Another disease that is generally caused by genetics is cystic fibrosis which is caused by a defective gene. As many as four people in the UK have this gene; however the gene is recessive meaning children will only get the gene if both parents are carriers. Cy stic fibrosis results in a sticky mucus forming in the lungs, pancreas and intestines, and in the past it meant a low life expectancy but today a lot can be done to solve this. In relation to Jason asthma also seen as a genetic disease and Jason’s development of asthma could be a result of his Mother smoking of drinking during pregnancy. However the causes of asthma may not just be due to genetic inheritance but also due to environmental factors which I will further later in the essay. Closely related to this and sometimes somewhat confused are biological factors.Biological factors also start from conception and one of these is Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) which is the biggest cause of mental handicap in the western world as well as the only one that is 100% preventable. The first stages in prenatal are the most important and again this relates to Jason as one of the effects of FAS is falling behind with leaning development and Jason found school hard to cope with but in the end caught up, however this could be as a result of many reason and it does not mean his mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. A woman’s diet also affects the foetus as well as during breast eeding, research shows that if a mother had a high sugar diet her child is more likely to develop high cholesterol and a higher risk of heart disease in later life. Malnutrition or a lack of health food could also lead to poor health for the child in later life Jason’s mother also could have smoke during pregnancy leading to his asthma. Socioeconomic factors also heavy a heavy impact on development for example if a family is poor there is a higher risk a child will suffer from malnutrition as well as the fact in later life they will want to do better.Within the factor is values and attitudes, a prime example of this would be education, if parents have went to college they will more than likely want their children to as well, however it could also be argued that if parent haven ’t went to college they will want their children to achieve more in life than they did. In relation to Jason although he may want to go to college he may not be able to as he does not come from a well off family and may not be able to afford to do so. Continuing on from this is Lifestyle factors, which is a highly varied subject.For example a person who has been brought up in a poor household will be completely different that one brought up in a well off household. Nutrition and dietary is a big part of this however it is only if you are reasonably well off that you can afford to buy the healthier choices. As well as this alcohol intake and the misuse of substances can affect you and this happens to be on of the most controversial issues in society. It can have social, physical and mental effects on an individual from the expense, to long term health risks or the fact it could lead to depression.In relation to Jason’s lifestyle the fact he may not be able to afford col lege and the fact he lives in a high density housing estate may mean he is not that well off money wise meaning he may not get the healthiest foods and could also have been bullied not only as a result of his asthma but also as he cannot afford the things some of the other children could. Lastly is environmental factors, this has a huge impact on our development and research shows that 1 out of 5 children are malnourished. However this is a varied range of situations.Exposure to pollution as well as poor housing can lead to health problems for example carbon monoxide takes away oxygen from the red blood cells as they have a higher affinity for it which can then lead to heart disease and nitrogen and sulphur dioxide can lead to lung disease as these gases irritate the lungs. This is not the only environmental effect however, Jason got bullied a lot at school which means he could suffer from depression and will have low self-esteem in later life. As well as this fact when he was 8 his parents divorced which leaves a great mental effect on individuals and at his age it was a lot to go through.Separation can lead to anger issues for the child as well as abandonment issues and this could even go on to affect Jason in later life it could even lead to AD (anxiety disorder) which could be as the child’s routine is disrupted. Jason’s parents’ divorce may be the reason he fell behind at school and when he reached adolescence he adapted which may be why his school work improved. Environmental factors can affect development both physically and mentally. In conclusion all five factors can affect an individual’s development as shown through the example of Jason, and all five have different effects yet still equally importantBibliography * http://www. livestrong. com/article/217996-factors-affecting-early-child-development/ *http://www. psychologytoday. com/blog/surviving-your-childs-adolescence/201112/the-impact-divorce-young-children-and-adolesc ents *http://www. ucl. ac. uk/support-pages/information/alcohol-and-drug-abuse *http://www. lbl. gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/pollution-health-effects-f. html *http://uk-air. defra. gov. uk/air-pollution/effects *http://www. succeedsocially. com/lifestyle *Class notes *Moodle

Sunday, September 15, 2019

La Leche League International: Promoting Awareness for Breastfeeding

La Leche League For decades there has been a debate over whether or not women should be allowed to breast feed their infants in public. Breastfeeding is a significant activity in early development. Human breast milk contains essential nutrients and calories that are vital to the growth and health of children during the earliest stages of life. There are many organizations that have been formed to promote the awareness and necessity for breastfeeding. The most popular organization is the La Leche League International (LLLI).The La Leche League offers the women of the Valley the opportunity to join an international women’s organization and to better gain valuable insight on the history of breastfeeding and benefits that breastfeeding provides to both the mother and her infant. The La Leche League International is a non-profit organization that was founded by seven mothers (Mary White, Edwina Hearn Froehlich, Mary Ann Cahill, Betty Wagner Spandikow, Viola Brennan Lennon, Mary Ann Kerwin, and Marian Leonard Tompson) in the United States in 1956.The founders of the La Leche League hoped to help other mothers who wanted to breastfeed their children but found it difficult. The La Leche League offers information and encouragement (mainly through personal help and experience) to all mothers who want to breastfeed their babies. The La Leche League encourages breastfeeding from birth onwards with no upper age limit for the child. The idea for naming the ‘La Leche League' came from a statue in St. Augustine, Florida honoring â€Å"Nuestra Senora de la Leche y Buen Parto† which means â€Å"Our Lady of Milk and Good Childbirth†.When the La Leche League was found, the words â€Å"breastfeeding† and â€Å"pregnant† weren't readily accepted in society, so the Spanish word â€Å"La Leche† (which stands for â€Å"the milk†) was used as to not offend anyone in the society. In 2010, the League published the book The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding which â€Å"is the most complete resource available for the breastfeeding mother. The book became a National Best-seller†. The La Leche League is active in 65 countries and territories; it reaches more than 300,000 mothers monthly through a network of over 7,000 accredited leaders (â€Å"Brief†).The La Leche League was founded to give information and encouragement, mainly through personal help, to all mothers who want to breastfeed their babies. While complementing the care of the physician and other health care professionals, it recognizes the unique importance of one mother helping another to perceive the needs of her child and to learn the best means of fulfilling those needs. It helps mothers who want to breastfeed through mother-to-mother support, encouragement, information and education, and to promote a better understanding of breastfeeding as an important element in the healthy development of the baby and the mother (â€Å"LLLP†).The La Leche League believes that breastfeeding is best thing to do for the baby and the mother. It offers a unique bonding experience that fosters a nurturing relationship between mother-to-child. The La Leche League also believes that breastfeeding can deepen a mother's understanding of the responsibilities and rewards of her new role in the family. To be a member of the La Leche League it cost an annual fee of $25. Members are granted access to an international e-newsletter, a discount in their online store and special offers via email.The La Leche League believes mothers who are members of LLLI breastfeed longer because they have the information, education, support, and encouragement they need to enjoy the experience. Supporting Membership in LLLI is a real bargain when you consider the costs of not breastfeeding! The best way is to join is through a local group, so that funds will be available in your vicinity to help mothers and babies locally but members may opt to join online (â⠂¬Å"Benefits of LLL†). The closest center to our area is in McAllen, Texas.The McAllen group meets every third Tuesday of the month. All breastfeeding mothers and mothers-to-be interested in breastfeeding are welcome to attend any meeting or call one of the Leaders for breastfeeding help or information. Babies are always welcome at the meetings as well. La Leche League Leaders are experienced mothers who have breastfed their own babies and who have been trained and accredited by La Leche League International to help mothers and mothers-to-be with all aspects of breastfeeding.They are available by phone whenever you have breastfeeding questions or concerns. Interested candidates for membership can join LLLI locally in 65 different countries and territories or online virtually anywhere. Although the La Leche League is a non-profit organization, in 2009-2010 it received â€Å"$594,083 from membership dues, $485,035 from Publications, $382,680 from Contributions, $327,044 Royalty Income, $34,522 from Periodicals, $7,760 from Miscellaneous, $5,279 from Interest Income, and $650 from Workshop and seminar fees† (â€Å"LLLIO†).The most commonly issue with mothers breastfeeding is if it is acceptable public acceptance. While there are no recorded laws in the US forbidding breastfeeding outside of the home and only three states in which laws place any limitation on the way in which public breastfeeding may be done, it is often frowned upon by the public. A woman who breastfeeds in a privately owned place open to the public, such as a restaurant or shopping mall, might lawfully be asked to leave, either by the owner or in accordance with the owner’s instructions.State laws that protect public breastfeeding fall into three categories. Currently, the strongest state laws are those that both protect a woman's right to breastfeed anywhere she or her child have a right to be, regardless of whether the breast is showing, and that also give the woman the power to bring a legal action against anyone who interferes with her breastfeeding. Other state laws establish a woman's right to breastfeed in public, but don't provide a way for her to enforce this right.The third category specifies that the act of breastfeeding is not indecent exposure (sometimes given other names, but always referring to the exposure of body parts), and prevent a woman from being charged with a sex crime for breastfeeding. Most of the states in the United States do protected nursing but there are three states that have no law protecting nursing, which include West Virginia, Nebraska, and Idaho. As for the state of Texas there is a law that protects nursing in public but without an enforcement provision (â€Å"Public†).Aside from knowing the laws about breastfeeding in public, people need to educate themselves on the benefits of breastfeeding to the infant and the mother. â€Å"Breastfeeding is one of the best ways to ensure a baby’s health and development. It’s a convenient, cost-effective, natural way to feed your baby† (â€Å"Breastfeeding†). Breast milk has been found to provide the ideal balance of nutrients for optimal growth and development, and it is easily digestible by the baby.This is because the breast produces colostrum, which is thick, yellowish fluid that helps a newborn’s digestive system develop and function properly. Nursing can also prevent many common childhood illnesses as breast milk contains antibodies that pass from the mother to the baby for protection. This is called natural immunity, and studies have shown a decrease in both hospitalizations and pediatrician visits in babes that were breastfed by their mothers. Some of the common aliments that are decreased include bacterial meningitis, iarrhea, ear infections, and respiratory tract infections. Other, more server condition, such as sudden infant death syndrome and childhood leukemia, have been confirmed by research to have a reduced risk of development in babies who have been breastfeed (â€Å"Breastfeeding†). For premature infants, human milk significantly shortens that duration of their hospital stay, hastens brainstem maturation, and reduces the risk of life-threating diseases. A mother’s breast milk is unique in both its composition and function, and cannot currently be reproduced by other manmade substance.Even though there are a multitude of benefits for the baby, there are also many for the mother as well. Breastfeeding helps the uterus return back to its normal size and reduces post delivery bleeding after by releasing a hormone called Oxytocin. It also burns up to five hundred calories per day, which helps the mother shed the pounds gained during pregnancy in a natural way, and breastfeeding may reduce the rick of developing postpartum depression. Breastfeeding exclusively can delay the return of the menstrual cycle for twenty to thirty weeks.Not only does this help the mot her recover quickly after leaving the hospital, but also it is 98% effective in preventing pregnancy. However, birth control is still suggested for preventative measures, and has not been found to have any adverse affect on the baby while breastfeeding. The most important benefit, however, is the bond developed between the baby and mother while breastfeeding, which helps to enhance emotional attachment between the two (â€Å"Benefits of â€Å"Breastfeeding†).The individual that I interviewed said that breastfeeding made her â€Å"fell closer to her baby and prideful that she could provide for her child† (Milligan). This physical contact also helps the baby to feel more secure and warm in their environment, and eases the transition out the womb. While breastfeeding, a baby gets skin-to-skin contact, ensuring a closer bond to their mother and helping the baby to feel more satisfied emotionally. Another great reason is that mothers can save thousands of dollars on hospit al visits and formal.Mothers can spend up to $500 each month for formula and up to $1500 for doctor visits, prescriptions, and hospital stays in the first year (â€Å"Benefits of LLL†) Since breastfeeding also results in a reduction in an infants illness, the mother will be able to take fewer sick days off from work. Although breastfeeding may seem scary or foreign, it is actually a very natural process to the body that will, with time, become both comfortable and natural for the mother.After weighing the multitude of benefits for the baby, society, and, the mother herself, breastfeeding is the best choice when it comes to feeding and caring for a baby in the most optimal way. That is why I believe mothers should to join the La Leche League to help promote breastfeeding in our community. Work Site â€Å"Benefits of Breastfeeding. † Natural Resources Defense Council. Natural Resources Defense Council. March 25, 2007. Web. April 2, 2012 â€Å"The Benefits of LLL Support ing Members. † La Leche League. La Leche League. June 6, 2011. Web.April 9, 2012 â€Å"A Brief History of La Leche League International. † La Leche League. La Leche League. October 14, 2007. Web. April 2, 2012 â€Å"Breastfeeding. † Healthy Women. Healthy Women. January 9, 2012. Web. April 10, 2012 â€Å"La Leche League International Operations. † La Lecha League. La Leache League. December 15, 2011. Web. April 9, 2012 â€Å"La Leche League Purpose. † La Leche League. La Leche League. October 14, 2007. Web. April 8, 2012 â€Å"Milligan, Alisha. † Personal Interview. April 8, 2012 â€Å"Public Breastfeeding Laws. † Mothering. Mothering. n. d . Web. April 10, 2012