Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Leadership Understanding of Work Motivation

Question: Motivating individuals and teams to meet organisational objectives is arguably one of the most important tasks for a manager. With reference to examples from your own organisation or an organisation with which you are familiar, consider why this is so. Answer: Introduction The skilful leadership creates the significant impact on the organisational performance. The effective management is determined through the achievement of the organisational objectives. Northouse (2015) indicated that the efficient leaders can motivate the people and influence them to bring out the effective performance attributes. It has been seen that the leaders usually follow the proper leadership style to bring excellence in the team work. However, the effective leadership style is even needed to be connected with the proper motivational process to achieve the pre-determined goals. The leaders need to think more deeply about the proper motivation process that will be beneficial enough to achieve the organisational excellence (Lăzăroiu 2015). The study will be exploring the motivational attributes undertaken by the leaders of Morrisons in UK. The theoretical framework will be representing the relevant process of motivating the employees. Depending on such theoretical framework, the study will further provide the preferable recommendations to the managers of Morrisons. Background of the Organisation Morrisons is the one of the most remarkable supermarkets in United Kingdom. Headquarter of the company is situated at Bradford, West Yorkshire. The mission of the company is to provide the customers more that their expectation level (Morrisons-corporate.com 2016). The company is therefore focusing on the high quality food at reasonable prices. In fact, the company is paying attention towards the development of their employees performance skills. Morrisons has set the aim to achieve the pre-determined goals of the organisation by providing the employees enough motivations. The company has considered two major components for achieving the success. The first is to acquire the unique approaches for motivating the employees. Another component is to provide the preferable and high quality goods to the customers. In such cases, the role and responsibility of the managers is necessary. There are almost 500 stores in UK that have been serving the customers by providing them the expected quali ty products (Morrisons.jobs 2016). The leaders or the managers have been improvising their leadership skills to motivate the employees and bring the performance excellence. The study will be presenting the existing literature related to the motivational theories that are needed to be applied in order to improve the performance parameter. Importance of Motivation It is noted that the maintenance of the proper motivational procedure is necessary for the managers. Over the past centuries, many of the motivational theories have been created in order to understand the human behaviour. Paill et al. (2014) implied that motivation is a requirement that influence the human beings to take the proper action. Employee motivation is one of the major and necessary processes that play the significant role in the organisational behaviour. The efficient leadership tactics can motivate the employees in a significant way and bring out the best performance attributes. If an employee is receiving the proper motivation from the organisation, it will be helpful for that particular employee to improve their performance skills (Lăzăroiu 2015). Eventually, the efficient performance skills will lead towards achieving the organisational and personal objectives. The existing theoretical framework will be signifying the proper motivational process that the managers can apply within the internal organisation setting. It is noted that the skilled performance attributes are required in order to achieve the organisational objectives. The major responsibility of the leaders includes the management of the employees as well as the entire organisations. The establishment of the proper communication skills and the interpersonal relationship of the leaders can increase the reliability among the other associates. When the employees will receive enough motivation from the organisations and avail the opportunities to develop their professional skills, it will energise them to provide more efforts. Therefore, motivation works as the driving force for the effective performance outcomes. Accordingly, the efficient motivational process can be beneficial for the overall organisational scenario. How do managers motivate the employees? The managers in the different organisations undertake diversified techniques to motivate the employees. In Morrisons, the management is trying to provide the high quality customer services to the target consumers. In order to achieve such objectives, it is seen that the company is concentrating on upgrading the performance level of the employees. Therefore, the company started the incentive policies. The employees will be awarded with the incentive amount for selling extra commodities to the customers (Morrisons-corporate.com 2016). In such times, the rewarded employees can receive enough motivations from the management. The process is even fruitful enough to ensure their efforts on organisational functionalities. While these employees are benefitted with the incentive amount, other associates are also being influenced for making their performance better. However, in some of the cases, it has been noticed that few people are unable to achieve their targets set for the month. Hence, t he management needs to pay attention towards their performance and identify the reason behind such lagging. Accordingly, if the management can provide them the proper training and development session in order to upgrade their skills, it will also considered as the process of motivation. Theories of Motivation Before analysing the theoretical background of the motivation process, it is necessary to concentrate on several factors that are essentially required to motivate the employees (Ghosh 2013). Such of these motivational factors are: Identification of the ability Growth and learning The sense of achievement Employee empowerment and responsibility Work stimulations Promotion Rewards The factors are somewhat quite complicated and blended with different complex thoughts. Considering such factors, Fredrick Herzberg introduced Two Factor Theory that ensures a unique approach for motivating an individual or a group. The theory is described further: Herzbergs Motivational Theory: Frederic Herzberg was one of the pioneers of job enrichment and the clinical psychologists who introduced the Two Factor theory of Motivation. According to him, several job factors are responsible for creating job satisfaction among the employees. He even mentioned that there are no such job factors that can even prevent the dissatisfaction. The Mr. Herzberg introduced two different factors for ensuring the motivational aspects. These two factors are Motivators and Hygiene Factors. Hygiene Factors: the hygiene factors include the essential components for the motivational process. This particular factor is not considerably leading towards the long term positive satisfaction. However, the absence of these factors may affect the employee motivation that may lead towards dissatisfaction. In different words, it can be interpreted that the presence of hygiene factors is reasonable for the employee satisfaction (Dwivedula, Bredillet and Mller 2015). There are some of the psychological needs that are associated with the hygiene factors. These are as follows: Policies and Administration of the Company: The employees do not prefer the rigid policies of an organisation. The maintenance of the fair and clear approaches in the organisational policies will be beneficial for keeping the existing employees motivated. For example, the flexible working hours, vacations, breaks, and dress codes are needed to be ensured by the organisation (Abahe.co.uk 2016). Pay: The salary structure of the employees should be reasonable and appropriate. The organisation needs to maintain the equality and competitiveness to those in the same domain and same industry. Physical working condition: The employees prefer the hygienic, safe, and clean work environment to work. The equipments used within the organisation should be well-maintained and upgraded. Fringe Benefits: If the organisation can offer the employees proper health care plans, health programmes, and benefits for their families, it will be much motivating to the existing employees. Interpersonal Relationship: The managers have to maintain the efficient relationship with the employees. If the employees are treated well by their supervisors, managers, and other subordinates, it inspires them to work peacefully. Status: The status of the employees should be retained ad familiar. It will be effective enough for making them more loyal towards the organisation (Dwivedula, Bredillet and Mller 2015). Job Security: The job security is the major concern for the employees. Therefore, the organisations have to keep the major focus on such securities that are needed to be provided to the employees. These hygiene factors are leading the employees towards job satisfaction to some extent. On the other hand, the absence of any of these factors may lead towards the job dissatisfaction. However, apart from such hygienic factors, the motivational factors are also necessarily needed to be implemented. Motivational Factors: Herzberg also explained that some of the hygienic factors are not signified as the motivators. Hence, the motivational factors yield the positive satisfaction of the existing employees (Ghazi, Shahzada and Khan 2013). The presence of such motivators influences the employees to initiate the better performance outcomes. These factors are initially rewarding the employees and making them feel appreciated. These factors are discussed further: Rewards and recognition: If the employees performance is beneficial for the organisation, it is required to recognise their accomplishments. The managers have to take such responsibility in this regard. Growth and Promotional Opportunities: if the employees perform well, the organisation needs to provide the sufficient opportunities to develop their professional careers (Ghosh 2013). The employees can even make the significant growth in their personal and professional behaviour as well. Sense of Achievement: Each of the employees needs to receive the sense of achievement. The managers need to allocate the job as per the skills. The performance of the skilled employees in their expertise areas will thus be fruitful for the organisation as well. Besides, the employees will get the sense of achievement that leads towards satisfaction. Work Meaningfulness: The employees prefer the challenging, meaningful, and interesting works. The managers have to select the preferable work settings to keep the employees motivated. Responsibility: The major concern for the employees is to recognise their responsibilities towards the organisation. The leaders or the managers need to keep the employees informed about the set of responsibilities that are required to be maintained. The recognition of the motivators is leading the employees towards the job satisfactions that keep them motivated for bringing the efficient performance outcome. However, the theory is not focusing on the situational variables that may change the entire scenario (Malik and Naeem 2013). There is the clear assumption based on the linking between motivations and productivity (Yusoff, Kian and Idris 2013). However, later, it was proved that the motivation is not linked with the productivity enhancement. Depending on such factors, the further recommendations are provided. Recommendation The above theoretical discussion is reflecting the necessity of motivating the employees. On the other hand, it was highlighted that the company, Morrisons, has set the aim to motivate the existing employees for the betterment of organisational process. Therefore, the managers or the leaders have to take the set of responsibilities to motivate the employees and ensure the performance excellence. Observing the above factors, it can be interpreted that the first and foremost step of motivation is to understand the requirement of the employees. The skilful leaders therefore need to acquire the proper communicational transparency to understand the basic needs of the employees. If the communicational transparency is present, the employees even feel the security to retain their job. During the situational conflict, the employees should not hesitate to speak about their problems. If they can raise their concerns to the team leaders or the supervisors, it would be effective enough to prevent the employee turnover ratio. The proper motivation provided to the employees will thus lead the organisation towards accomplishing the goals and achieving the performance excellence. Conclusion The study is focusing on the motivational factors that are needed to be implemented by the managers of the organisation. It is noted that the Morrisons is the supermarket chain that provides the quality goods to the customers. Accordingly, in ensuring the enhancements of the performance skills, the leaders of the company are paying attention towards proper motivational process. It is to be indicated that the proper motivation process can make the employees much satisfied. If the employees are satisfied with the organisational environment and the facilities, it will inspire them to bring the better performance outcomes. The literature study indicates the theoretical background based on the employee motivation. Frederick Herzberg introduced the Two Factor Theory, which suggests the hygienic and motivational factors that the organisations need to maintain. It is important to note that if the leaders or the managers can communicate with the employees more significantly, it will be helpfu l enough in resolving the situational conflicts. However, if the managers of Morrisons can pay attention towards such basic needs to keep the employees motivated, the determined organisational objectives can be accomplished. References Abahe.co.uk, 2016. Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory [online] Available at: https://www.abahe.co.uk/Free-En-Resources/Theories-of-Management/Herzberg-Motivation-Hygiene-Theory.pdf [Accessed 27 Aug. 2016]. Dwivedula, R., Bredillet, C. and Mller, R., 2015. Towards an Understanding of Work Motivation in Temporary Organizations. Ghazi, S.R., Shahzada, G. and Khan, M.S., 2013. Resurrecting Herzbergs two factor theory: An implication to the university teachers.Journal of Educational and Social Research,3(2), p.445. Ghosh, A.K., 2013. Employee empowerment: a strategic tool to obtain sustainable competitive advantage.International Journal of Management,30(3), p.95. Lăzăroiu, G., 2015. Employee Motivation and Job Performance.Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, (14), pp.97-102. Lăzăroiu, G., 2015. Work Motivation and Organizational Behavior.Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, (2), pp.66-75. Malik, M.E. and Naeem, B., 2013. Towards understanding controversy on Herzberg theory of motivation.World Applied Sciences Journal,24(8), pp.1031-1036. Morrisons.jobs, 2016. About Morrisons. [online] Morrisons.jobs. Available at: https://www.morrisons.jobs/page.cfm/content/About-Morrisons/ [Accessed 27 Aug. 2016]. Morrisons-corporate.com, 2016. Company History - Morrisons. [online] Morrisons-corporate.com. Available at: https://www.morrisons-corporate.com/about-us/company-history/ [Accessed 27 Aug. 2016]. Northouse, P.G., 2015.Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications. Paill, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O. and Jin, J., 2014. The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study.Journal of Business Ethics,121(3), pp.451-466. Yusoff, W.F.W., Kian, T.S. and Idris, M.T.M., 2013. Herzbergs Two Factors Theory On Work Motivation: Does Its Work For Todays Environment.Global journal of commerce and Management,2(5), pp.18-22.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Essay Example For Students

Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Essay Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Essay The vegetarian diet is becoming increasingly popular all the time. Is the vegetarian or meat diet better? A decade ago and earlier, the impression was that a vegetarian diet was lacking in the nutrients found in meat products. Today though, through research and nutritional science, it has been proven that all the nutrients found in meat can also be found in the correct vegetarian diet. Some may argue that by only consuming meat that is low in fat, meat and vegetarian diets have identical benefits. This is true only if one eats only very low fat meat. We will write a custom essay on Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The lack of meat is not necessarily the main benefit of to the vegetarian. Vegetarians tend to eat more fruits, vegetables and grains that the meat eater. They also tend not to use tobacco and excessive alcohol. In addition, vegetarians tend to get more exercise. The term vegetarian can be misleading. This diet can take on many different variations. A fruitarian eats only fruits, seeds and nuts while the vegan eats these and vegetables, grains and legumes. A lacto vegetarian consumes the same as a vegan as well as dairy products. A lacto-ovo vegetarian follows after the lacto vegetarian but also includes eggs while the ovo vegetarian excludes dairy products. Finally, the partial vegetarian eats anything except red meat, or at least strictly limits it. Because the term vegetarian is used to cover all facets and variations, it is difficult to identify health benefits resulting from the vegetarian diet including all of the above. Most meat eaters do not realize that there are so many variations to the vegetarian diet, which makes accurate studies even more difficult. As a whole though, vegetarians tend to have less body fat than nonvegetarians. This is most likely due to the low fat and high carbohydrate content of their diet. Vegetarians usually have lower blood pressure than meat eaters because of lifestyle and diet. Other factors probably include exercise and resistance to smoking and alcohol intake. Coronary artery disease is directly related to saturated fat intake. In studies testing cholesterol levels, vegetarians beat out all others including those that only ate lean meats. Milk, however, lowers blood cholesterol, as does soy. Another benefit is the lack of digestive disorders among vegetarians. It is possible that this is directly related to the high fiber content consumed. The last main benefit of the vegetarian diet is its relationship to cancer rate reduction, especially colon cancer. People who develop colon cancer tend to eat more meat, less fiber, and more saturated fat than those without colon cancer. This is the same case with lymphatic cancer. The only advantage a meat eater might have over a vegetarian would be during pregnancy and childhood. Studies have shown that children grow best when they eat meat products. Likewise, vegetarian women may enter pregnancy too thin and be lacking in stores of nutrients. Obviously, there are advantages and drawbacks to both diets however I feel the vegetarian diets advantages greatly outweigh its shortcomings. Whether a meat eater or vegetarian, both diets can contribute to good health with proper planning. . Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Essay Example For Students Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Essay Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Essay The vegetarian diet is becoming increasingly popular all the time. Is the vegetarian or meat diet better? A decade ago and earlier, the impression was that a vegetarian diet was lacking in the nutrients found in meat products. Today though, through research and nutritional science, it has been proven that all the nutrients found in meat can also be found in the correct vegetarian diet. Some may argue that by only consuming meat that is low in fat, meat and vegetarian diets have identical benefits. This is true only if one eats only very low fat meat. We will write a custom essay on Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The lack of meat is not necessarily the main benefit of to the vegetarian. Vegetarians tend to eat more fruits, vegetables and grains that the meat eater. They also tend not to use tobacco and excessive alcohol. In addition, vegetarians tend to get more exercise. The term vegetarian can be misleading. This diet can take on many different variations. A fruitarian eats only fruits, seeds and nuts while the vegan eats these and vegetables, grains and legumes. A lacto vegetarian consumes the same as a vegan as well as dairy products. A lacto-ovo vegetarian follows after the lacto vegetarian but also includes eggs while the ovo vegetarian excludes dairy products. Finally, the partial vegetarian eats anything except red meat, or at least strictly limits it. Because the term vegetarian is used to cover all facets and variations, it is difficult to identify health benefits resulting from the vegetarian diet including all of the above. Most meat eaters do not realize that there are so many variations to the vegetarian diet, which makes accurate studies even more difficult. As a whole though, vegetarians tend to have less body fat than nonvegetarians. This is most likely due to the low fat and high carbohydrate content of their diet. Vegetarians usually have lower blood pressure than meat eaters because of lifestyle and diet. Other factors probably include exercise and resistance to smoking and alcohol intake. Coronary artery disease is directly related to saturated fat intake. In studies testing cholesterol levels, vegetarians beat out all others including those that only ate lean meats. Milk, however, lowers blood cholesterol, as does soy. Another benefit is the lack of digestive disorders among vegetarians. It is possible that this is directly related to the high fiber content consumed. The last main benefit of the vegetarian diet is its relationship to cancer rate reduction, especially colon cancer. People who develop colon cancer tend to eat more meat, less fiber, and more saturated fat than those without colon cancer. This is the same case with lymphatic cancer. The only advantage a meat eater might have over a vegetarian would be during pregnancy and childhood. Studies have shown that children grow best when they eat meat products. Likewise, vegetarian women may enter pregnancy too thin and be lacking in stores of nutrients. Obviously, there are advantages and drawbacks to both diets however I feel the vegetarian diets advantages greatly outweigh its shortcomings. Whether a meat eater or vegetarian, both diets can contribute to good health with proper planning. Health Care and Beauty Essays .

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Volleyball Essay Example For Students

Volleyball Essay Title:Blocking in Volleyball Essay Description: Blocking in Volleyball Blocking is a very important defensive aspect of volleyball at higher levels. Blocking is one of the hardest skills to learn, and does not always show direct results. The Body: We will write a custom essay on Volleyball specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Blocking in Volleyball Blocking is a very important defensive aspect of volleyball at higher levels. Blocking is one of the hardest skills to learn, and does not always show direct results. The block serves four basic functions. The first is to stop the ball, and hopefully return it to the opponents side for a point or side out. The second is to eliminate as a much of the court for the opposing hitter to hit into, also making the court easier for the back row to defend. The third is to deflect the ball up so that it can be used for an attack. The last function is to force the use of a secondary (possibly weaker) hitter, or a secondary hit such as a tip or half hit. The basics of the block begin at the feet. The feet should be parallel, about fourteen inches from the net, and about shoulder width apart. The weight should be on the inside of the feet, with more weight on the foot opposite the direction of the most likely movement. Knees should be slightly bent. Hands should always be kept at shoulder height, elbows flexed, and the forarms should be parallel to the net. Prior to jumping a half squat position should be assumed, with back straight, leaning slightly to the net. Ater jumping hands should go up and slide over the net as far as possible. The arms and hands should be rigid, with thumbs upward and fingers spread apart. Before contact, the arms, shoulders, and hands should be turned inward to the center of the court. The body should pike. The hands should be open to surround, and try to catch the ball. There are two main methods of movement. These include the side step and the crossover. The side step is meant for covering a short distance. The body stays square to the net. The foot closest to the direction of the movement moves first. The outer foot then follows sliding back to a shoulder width position. Setting the block involves several variables. These include the distance of the set from the net, height of the set, attacker, angle of hitters approach, what hand the hitter uses, and lastly the position of the attacking arm and elbow in relationship to the ball. Body position is also important in setting the block. The blocker should not be too close to the net, but should not be further than fourteen inches. The outside blocker is responsible for setting the outside of the block in a multiple block. He should set up no closer than one arms length from the antennae, thus reducing the chances of a brush off. The offside (left) blocker should keep their left hand on the setters face, this will reduce the chances of the setter dumping succesfully. 1} There are seven key points in the blocking sequence: -Verbally identify attack options before serve -watch first pass and asses setters options -get into position -time the jump -pike and press to opposite corner of court -lock elbows after hitter has committed to a direction Some common mistakes in blocking are not penetrating the net, not closing the block, fading or drifting past the hitter, and touching the net. A basic drill to start out with is a stationary block. By having someone on a box or chair acting as a hitter, athletes can get used to blocking. The ball will be hit in the same direction each time. The blocker can get used to keeping the hands high, keeping their eyes open, and going after the ball. .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 , .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .postImageUrl , .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 , .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3:hover , .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3:visited , .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3:active { border:0!important; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3:active , .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3 .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua2fd921a5b42be8c4648f8a907692ea3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: To Kill A Mockingbird: Childhood Experience Essay It is important that the foot work becomes natural. By moving along the net practicing the blocking movements blockers can develop efficiency and balance. To develop timing and adjustment making abilities the 2} over the head drill can be used. In this the coach stands on the blockers side. He then tosses the ball over the net to the opposing hitter. The block must then adjust to where the ball is going and front the hitter. To develop some . Volleyball Essay Example For Students Volleyball Essay Volleyball Essay The sport of volleyball was created by a man named William G. Morgan of Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1895. Morgan was a physical education teacher at the YMCA and called it mintonette. It was an indoor or outdoor pastime that had characteristics of both handball and tennis. The first rules were written down by Morgan himself. He wrote that the game called for a 6 foot 6 inch net and a court of 2550 feet. A match composed of 9 innings and 3 serves for each team in each inning. In case of a serving error they got a second chance just like in tennis. If the ball it the net on a serve it was considered a foul and it caused a side out or a point was taken away. In 1896 after a demonstration at the YMCA in Springfield and the name Mintonette was replaced with the name Volleyball. In 1900 the rules were modified and the height of the net went up to 7 feet 6 inches. We will write a custom essay on Volleyball specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Also a match length was set at 21 points. Also in 1900 Canada was the first foreign country to adopt the game of Volleyball. In 1906 the country of Cuba discovered volleyball thanks to Thanks to a North American army officer named Agusto York who took part in the second military intervention. In 1908 volleyball reached Japan. Hyozo Omori a graduate at Springfield college in the United States who was the first to demonstrate the rules of the game at the YMCA in Tokyo. In 1910 volleyball officially landed in China. Between 1912 and now many of the rules changed and changed again. In 1924 it was demonstrated at the Olympics in Paris under the show of American sports. In 1938 the Chzechs perfected blocking and was officially introduced to the rules. In 1942 William G. Morgan the creator of volleyball died at the age of 68. He felt no jealousy when the sport he created grew and developed. In 1945 the first volleyball postage stamp was released in Romania. In 1947 Egypt was the first Arab and African country to organize a national federation. In 1952 the first womens world championship was held in Moscow and won by the USSR. In 1960 the first World Championship for men was held outside of Europe in Brazil. In 1965 the first world cup was held in Poland and was won by the USSR. In 1973 the first womens world cup was played in Uruguay and was won by the USSR. In 1976 at the Olympics in Montreal Poland won the Mens division and Japan the womens. In 1986 USA won the first mens World Championships. China took the womens Gold. Beach Volleyball was also first recognized. In 1987 the first Beach volleyball world championship was played in Ipanema, Brazil. Ever since a lot of these events volleyball has grown in popularity and is now played world wide and both mens and womens clubs and organizations play at national and international tournaments. At this time in Southern California volleyball is as serious as the winter games in Finland. Both Boys and girls compete year round and the competition is fierce. Not to far behind is the Northern California Volleyball association. The NCVA has put out many of the nations greatest. Many injuries that occur with volleyball run from Bruises to breaks. The most common are ankle or knee injuries since a lot of stop and go and jumping. Often muscles are pulled in the shoulders and back. In volleyball injuries are all too common. Whether its landing wrong or player collision injuries and volleyball players go together like rain and water. Often you may see a girl with bruises all over her knees and elbows but its just from the game or practice she recently had. Volleyball may seem like a less exsausting sport compared to basketball but in Volleyball muscles are constantly stopping and going and movements are very prisice and sharp. A player has to be almost lightning fast and and in deep concentration. .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 , .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .postImageUrl , .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 , .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4:hover , .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4:visited , .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4:active { border:0!important; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4:active , .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4 .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u76bd233907ccdd2b5e39cc01a74c9da4:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Civil Disobedience Essay Focus and playing smart are the keys to being a successful Volleyball player. Many of the most competitive players work out every day of the week to increase . Volleyball Essay Example For Students Volleyball Essay The proper technique for a forearm pass is to be in the ready position, which is with arms at 90 degrees from your body. You bend at the waist with your We will write a custom essay on Volleyball specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now shoulders forward and hips are back. Keep a 90 degree angle between arms and your upper body. Your legs should also be bent. My forearm pass wasnt as good as the one in the video. My arms were not straight. I needed them at a forty five degree angle. My thumbs together and down were really good. The video had a good follow through for good accuracy. I also had a good follow through. My ball contact against my forearm felt good. I hit the ball on my forearms on almost every time! I usually hit it over the net. Every time I hit the ball I bent my knees. I think this is mandatory to hit the ball accurate and straight. If you dont bend your knees you will definently not get the accurate results you want when you hit the ball. Being alert and in ready position is good. When you are in this position you can always be ready to hit the ball straight and accurate. Being ready is very important in all sports because you should always be alert. I think I overall did good in the Volleyball Essay assessment. I will grade myself a 3 or a B. I did this because I almost always did everything right. Every once in a while I would screw up, but when I did my forearm pass assessment I did good. I would give myself an A for the effort grade though because I tried hard. I think I deserved a good grade on the assessment forearm pass for volleyball. I thought that the volleyball sport was fun this year. I enjoyed doing that a lot. . Volleyball Essay Example For Students Volleyball Essay Title:Blocking in Volleyball Essay Description: Blocking in Volleyball Blocking is a very important defensive aspect of volleyball at higher levels. Blocking is one of the hardest skills to learn, and does not always show direct results. The Body: We will write a custom essay on Volleyball specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Blocking in Volleyball Blocking is a very important defensive aspect of volleyball at higher levels. Blocking is one of the hardest skills to learn, and does not always show direct results. The block serves four basic functions. The first is to stop the ball, and hopefully return it to the opponents side for a point or side out. The second is to eliminate as a much of the court for the opposing hitter to hit into, also making the court easier for the back row to defend. The third is to deflect the ball up so that it can be used for an attack. The last function is to force the use of a secondary (possibly weaker) hitter, or a secondary hit such as a tip or half hit. The basics of the block begin at the feet. The feet should be parallel, about fourteen inches from the net, and about shoulder width apart. The weight should be on the inside of the feet, with more weight on the foot opposite the direction of the most likely movement. Knees should be slightly bent. Hands should always be kept at shoulder height, elbows flexed, and the forarms should be parallel to the net. Prior to jumping a half squat position should be assumed, with back straight, leaning slightly to the net. Ater jumping hands should go up and slide over the net as far as possible. The arms and hands should be rigid, with thumbs upward and fingers spread apart. Before contact, the arms, shoulders, and hands should be turned inward to the center of the court. The body should pike. The hands should be open to surround, and try to catch the ball. There are two main methods of movement. These include the side step and the crossover. The side step is meant for covering a short distance. The body stays square to the net. The foot closest to the direction of the movement moves first. The outer foot then follows sliding back to a shoulder width position. Setting the block involves several variables. These include the distance of the set from the net, height of the set, attacker, angle of hitters approach, what hand the hitter uses, and lastly the position of the attacking arm and elbow in relationship to the ball. Body position is also important in setting the block. The blocker should not be too close to the net, but should not be further than fourteen inches. The outside blocker is responsible for setting the outside of the block in a multiple block. He should set up no closer than one arms length from the antennae, thus reducing the chances of a brush off. The offside (left) blocker should keep their left hand on the setters face, this will reduce the chances of the setter dumping succesfully. {1} There are seven key points in the blocking sequence: -Verbally identify attack options before serve -watch first pass and asses setters options -get into position -time the jump -pike and press to opposite corner of court -lock elbows after hitter has committed to a direction Some common mistakes in blocking are not penetrating the net, not closing the block, fading or drifting past the hitter, and touching the net. A basic drill to start out with is a stationary block. By having someone on a box or chair acting as a hitter, athletes can get used to blocking. The ball will be hit in the same direction each time. The blocker can get used to keeping the hands high, keeping their eyes open, and going after the ball. .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f , .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .postImageUrl , .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f , .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f:hover , .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f:visited , .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f:active { border:0!important; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f:active , .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5ef58321c92aee54dcce853962f6584f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Lymphoma Essay It is important that the foot work becomes natural. By moving along the net practicing the blocking movements blockers can develop efficiency and balance. To develop timing and adjustment making abilities the {2} over the head drill can be used. In this the coach stands on the blockers side. He then tosses the ball over the net to the opposing hitter. The block must then adjust to where the ball is going and front the hitter. To develop some . Volleyball Essay Example For Students Volleyball Essay History The sport of Volleyball Essay originated in the United States, and is now just achieving the type of popularity in the U.S. that it has received on a global basis, where it ranks behind only soccer among participation sports. Today there are more than 46 million Americans who play volleyball. There are 800 million players worldwide who play Volleyball at least once a week. In 1895, William G. Morgan an instructor at the Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) in Holyoke, Mass., decided to blend elements of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball to create a game for his classes of businessmen which would demand less physical contact than basketball. He created the game of Volleyball (at that time called mintonette). Morgan borrowed the net from tennis, and raised it 6 feet 6 inches above the floor, just above the average mans head. We will write a custom essay on Volleyball specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now During a demonstration game, someone remarked to Morgan that the players seemed to be volleying the ball back and forth over the net, and perhaps volleyball would be a more descriptive name for the sport. On July 7, 1900 at Springfield College the first game of volleyball was played. In 1900, a special ball was designed for the sport. Volleyball can be played indoors and outdoors. It was adopted as an indoor Olympic sport in 1964 at Tokyo. In 1984 the United States men and women won their first Olympic Volleyball medals. In 1996, two-person beach volleyball was approved as an Olympic Sport. Todays NCAA Volleyball is more popular and exciting than ever. Some top collegian programs include Long Beach State, Penn State, BYU, UCLA, Hawaii and Stanford. Some of the best players ever to play the sport include Karch Kiraly, Gabrielle Reese, Sinjin Smith, Misty May and Ryan Millar. Today the game of volleyball requires team strategies and highly refined individual skills. Outdoor volleyball, which is played with two or four people for each side, is becoming more and more popular across the nation Overview A typical volleyball game lasts about 25 minutes. It is a team sport played by two teams consisting of six people on a playing court divided by a net. The object of the game is for each team to send the ball regularly over a net in order to ground it on the opponents side, and to prevent the opponents from doing the same. The ball is put into play by the right back row player who serves the ball into their opponents court. The rally continues until the ball is grounded on the playing court, goes out or a team fails to return it properly. Only the team, which is serving, can score a point. The players are split into back and front row; the players in the front are usually the key hitters and the ones who will get the ball passes/set to. The players in the back row normally concentrate on defense and passing the ball to the setter who is the main person in the offensive attack. A team wins a game by scoring 15 points with a two-point advantage; and the match by winning the best three of five games. In a deciding, fifth game, which is called a rally game, a point is scored no matter which team is serving. A team earns a point when serving and when they side-out. Rules A team is allowed to hit the ball three times (not counting a block contact) to return it to the opponents court. A player may not catch, lift, scoop, or throw the ball. They also may not hit the ball twice consecutively when attempting a pass or block. In a regular volleyball game, only the serving team may score a point. A player may serve anywhere behind the backline, but between the courts boundary/side lines. A point is scored if the serving team wins the rally. If the serving team does not win the rally then it is a side-out to the other team. When the receiving team wins a rally, it gains the right to serve, and its players rotate one position clockwise. For instance, the player in the right back move to middle back, the player in left back moves to left front. .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 , .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .postImageUrl , .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 , .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719:hover , .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719:visited , .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719:active { border:0!important; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719:active , .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719 .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub5b84d1fb1922e6b34527e2ec138f719:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Christopher Columbus Essay Rotation ensures that players play both the front row and the back .

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Geography of Oceania, the Pacific Islands

The Geography of Oceania, the Pacific Islands Oceania is the name of the region consisting of island groups within the Central and South Pacific Ocean. It spans over 3.3 million square miles (8.5 million sq km). Some of the countries included in Oceania are Australia, New Zealand, Tuvalu, Samoa, Tonga, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Palau, Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati,  and Nauru. Oceania also includes several dependencies and territories such as American Samoa, Johnston Atoll,  and French Polynesia. Physical Geography In terms of its physical geography, the islands of Oceania are often divided into four different sub-regions based on the geologic processes playing a role in their physical development. The first of these is Australia. It is separated because of its location in the middle of the Indo-Australian Plate and the fact that, due to its location, there was no mountain building during its development. Instead, Australias current physical landscape features were formed mainly by erosion. The second landscape category in Oceania is the islands found on the collision boundaries between the Earths crustal plates. These are found specifically in the South Pacific. For example, at the collision boundary between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates are places like New Zealand, Papua New Guinea,  and the Solomon Islands. The North Pacific portion of Oceania also features these types of landscapes along the Eurasian and Pacific plates. These plate collisions are responsible for the formation of mountains like those in New Zealand, which climb to over 10,000 feet (3,000 m). Volcanic islands such as Fiji are the third category of landscape types found in Oceania. These islands typically rise from the seafloor through hotspots in the Pacific Ocean basin. Most of these areas consist of very small islands with high mountain ranges. Finally, coral reef islands and atolls such as Tuvalu are the last type of landscape found in Oceania. Atolls specifically are responsible for the formation of low-lying land regions, some with enclosed lagoons. Climate Most of Oceania is divided into two climate zones. The first of these is temperate and the second is tropical. Most of Australia and all of New Zealand are within the temperate zone and most of the island areas in the Pacific are considered tropical. Oceanias temperate regions feature high levels of precipitation, cold winters, and warm to hot summers. The tropical regions in Oceania are hot and wet year round. In addition to these climatic zones, most of Oceania is impacted by continuous trade winds and sometimes hurricanes (called tropical cyclones in Oceania) which have historically caused catastrophic damage to countries and islands in the region. Flora and Fauna Because most of Oceania is tropical or temperate, there is an abundant amount of rainfall which produces tropical and temperate rainforests throughout the region. Tropical rainforests are common in some of the island countries located near the tropics, while temperate rainforests are common in New Zealand. In both of these types of forests, there is a plethora of plant and animal species, making Oceania one of the worlds most biodiverse regions. It is important to note, however, that not all of Oceania receives abundant rainfall, and portions of the region are arid or semiarid. Australia, for example, features large areas of arid land which have little vegetation. In addition, El Nià ±o has caused frequent droughts in recent decades in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Oceanias fauna, like its flora, is also extremely biodiverse. Because much of the area consists of islands, unique species of birds, animals,  and insects evolved out of isolation from others. The presence of coral reefs such as the Great Barrier Reef and Kingman Reef also represent large areas of biodiversity and some are considered biodiversity hotspots. Population Most recently in 2018, Oceanias population was around 41 million people, with the majority centered in Australia and New Zealand. Those two countries alone accounted for more than 28 million people, while Papua New Guinea had a population of over 8 million. The remaining population of Oceania is scattered around the various islands making up the region. Urbanization Like its population distribution, urbanization and industrialization also vary in Oceania. 89% of Oceanias urban areas are in Australia and New Zealand and these countries also have the most well-established infrastructure. Australia, in particular, has many raw minerals and energy sources, and manufacturing is a large part of its and Oceanias economy. The rest of Oceania and specifically the Pacific islands are not well developed. Some of the islands have rich natural resources, but the majority do not. In addition, some of the island nations do not even have enough clean drinking water or food to supply to their citizens. Agriculture Agriculture is also important in Oceania and there are three types which are common in the region. These include subsistence agriculture, plantation crops ,  and capital-intensive agriculture. Subsistence agriculture occurs on most of the Pacific islands and is done to support local communities. Cassava, taro, yams, and sweet potatoes are the most common products of this type of agriculture. Plantation crops are planted on the medium tropical islands while capital-intensive agriculture is practiced mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Economy Fishing is a significant source of revenue because many islands have maritime exclusive economic zones that extend for 200 nautical miles and many small islands have granted permission to foreign countries to fish the region via fishing licenses.   Tourism is also important to Oceania because many of the tropical islands like Fiji offer aesthetic beauty, while Australia and New Zealand are modern cities with modern amenities. New Zealand has also become an area centered on the growing field of ecotourism.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Responsibility Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Responsibility Project - Essay Example He just put a block of carrot in place of the missing wheel to balance the chair. The film ends with the concern being settled because someone was selfless and became willing to sacrifice in addressing the needs of others before his own. The film illustrates negative behaviours within an organization – avoiding responsibility and passing problems to someone else. It shows how the worker who first had the chair problem refused to resolve it and just tried to get away with it. It was not only him but also his coworkers did the same thing. In an organization, workers have the tendency to deny their mistakes and hide them as much as possible. This negative practice would most likely result to unresolved problems and conflicts. It also defies the importance of teamwork and respect for others. Nevertheless, the value of sacrifice and selflessness was also demonstrated in the film, which was another example of lack of cooperation. The film shows how an office can be a better place if only each individual would show initiative, problem-solving skills, respect and concern for others, and equality. It also shows that a particular burden of an organization should not be the burden of only one person, even though he is w illing to take charge of the problem. The film also targets the negative implications of having unresolved problems or unaddressed issues in an organization. The bad habits illustrated in the film, when tolerated, could put the survival of an organization at risk. It shows that the workers could not really be trusted even with a minor setback such as a dilapidated chair. If these practices strongly exist in an organization, they would create an unhealthy and discouraging work environment. The issues illustrated in the film create awareness among viewers that unhealthy behaviour really exists in organizations, thus, encourages us to make ways to

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Global Trade And The Opec Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Global Trade And The Opec - Essay Example World spare capacity fell below 1.5 mbd - the biggest since 1976. Looking ahead, crude oil will probably stay as a primary source of energy in and beyond the next three decades necessitating large upfront investments. Likewise, traditional non-OPEC production is expected to reach its zenith in 2010 due to depletion of current fields and net declines in proven reserves. As such, a substantial quantity of the incremental capacity will have to come from OPEC which today controls around 80% of proven oil reserves. OPEC stands for Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, a stable inter-governmental association composed presently of eleven oil generating and exporting nations from across three continents (America, Asia and Africa). The member countries are Algeria, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates & Venezuela. These nations have an aggregate population of about 545 million and oil is the most important commodity and foreign exchange earner. Therefore, for these countries, oil is the chief element for development - social, political and economic. The income derived from oil is used not only to spread out and inflate their economic and industrial base, it is also utilized to provide their people with jobs, education, health care and a decent standard of living. Primary objectives of the organization include: * the synchronization and bringing together of petroleum policies of member countries and ascertaining the most logical means for protecting their individual and collective interests; *the search for judicious methods to guarantee the stabilization of prices in global oil markets with the view to reduce and eventually do away with destructive and unnecessary fluctuations; and *the need to give an efficient economic and consistent supply of petroleum to consuming countries and a reasonable return of investment to those infusing capital in the petroleum industry. OPEC sets oil production quotas. For one, its Statute requires that it pursues stability and harmony in the petroleum market for the benefit of oil producers and consumers. In response to this, member countries take action on market fundamentals and forecast developments by organizing well and managing prudently their petroleum policies. One simple and probable response is production regulation. If demand increases, or some producers are producing less than what it is expected of them, OPEC can increase its oil production so as to prevent a drastic change/rise in prices. OPEC can also slow down on its production in response to market conditions. Does OPEC control the oil market or does it have the capacity to control the market and influence oil prices Member countries produce about 43% of the world's crude oil and 18% of its natural gas. However, in addition to that, OPEC's oil exports also represent about 51% of the crude oil traded worldwide. Hence, OPEC has a strong influence on the oil market, especially if it decides to reduce or increase its level of production. Crude Oil and Gasoline Prices Several significant components trigger and eventually cause the retail price of gasoline to change over different periods of time. First, price of gasoline strongly

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Should Pluto be considered as a Planet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Should Pluto be considered as a Planet - Essay Example In the end around 2700 astronomers agreed that the solar system be divided into two categories called 'Planet' and 'Dwarf Planet'. Pluto being put in the category of 'Dwarf Planet' that means it will no longer be placed in the company of eight planets viz. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. A new distinct class of objects called 'Dwarf planets was decided with Ceres, Pluto and 2003 UB313 (temporary name) being the first three members of this club. When Pluto was discovered, in 1930 astronomers assumed that it had a mass comparable to Earth's. Only gradually, in the ensuing decades, did celestial mechanicals come to realize that this grossly overestimated. Pluto turned out to be less than 1% of Earth's size. With the advent of powerful new telescopes on the ground and in space, planetary astronomy has gone though an exciting development over the past decade and we are bound to find many more dwarf planets in future, if we continue placing them all in the list of 'Planets', in the company of Earth moon then we'll doing injustice to this elite club members having such distinctive features as life, air, water, atmosphere etc. Astronomy, the branch of physics studying celestial bodies, gives room for improvements and evolutions with newer discoveries. Since the time in 1930 when Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto, many similar objects were discovered in the outer solar system, most notably the Trans-Neptunian object Eris which is slightly larger than Pluto. If we continue to treat Pluto as a Planet, it is bound to give room for more debates for including some more names in the list. Pluto is very unlike its inner neighbors, the gas giants Uranus and Neptune. This thought led to the exclusion of Pluto from the refurbished Hayden Planetarium in New York City when it unveiled its spiral planet walk. This goes on to prove that Pluto's place in the list was being doubted for long. We now know of thousands of small icy bodies in a zone called the Kuiper Belt and at least 100 of them are like Pluto. Studies are still on to look for many more. The article states that 'there are two fundamentally different ways to define planets. One is to treat the planets as dynamically interacting ensemble with bodies that perturb each other gravitationally. This approach is what led to Pluto originally being considered as massive as the Earth-to account for the perturbations on Neptune and Uranus that were supposedly the basis of Percival Lowell's prediction of a trans-Neptunian planet. But as the decade rolled by, astronomers realized that apparent irregularities in the motions of the outer planets were attribution to an erroneous mass assigned to Neptune. Pluto, discovered by coincidence roughly where Lowell said it should be, is actually an irrelevant lightweight compared to the main family of planets.' Pluto, Eris and others require to be studied and analyzed further, before we arrive